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Aria



aria is widely regarded as one of atlanta's finest restaurants. located in buckhead and specializing in modern american cuisine, aria also delivers terrific hospitality in an elegant yet comfortable atmosphere. aria is the delicious vision of chef and restaurateur gerry klaskala. getting to know aria is getting to know klaskala: serious about food, friends, art and music, and adamant that dining out be one of life's joys




aria


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In music, an aria (Italian: [ˈaːrja]; plural: arie [ˈaːrje], or arias in common usage, diminutive form arietta [aˈrjetta], plural ariette, or in English simply air) is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrumental or orchestral accompaniment, normally part of a larger work.


The typical context for arias is opera, but vocal arias also feature in oratorios and cantatas, or they can be stand-alone concert arias. The term was originally used to refer to any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.


By the early 18th century, composers such as Alessandro Scarlatti had established the aria form, and especially its da capo version with ritornelli, as the key element of opera seria. "It offered balance and continuity, and yet gave scope for contrast. [...] The very regularity of its conventional features enabled deviations from the normal to be exploited with telling effect."[7] In the early years of the century, arias in the Italian style began to take over in French opera, giving rise eventually to the French genre of ariette, normally in a relatively simple ternary form.[8]


The three principal personages of the drama ought to sing five arias each; two in the first act, two in the second, and one in the third. The second actress and the second soprano can only have three, and the inferior characters must be satisfied with a single aria each, or two at the most. The author of the words must [...] take care that two pathetic [i.e. melancholy] arias do not succeed one another. He must distribute with the same precaution the bravura arias, the arias of action, the inferior arias, and the minuets and rondeaus. He must, above all things, avoid giving impassioned arias, bravura arias, or rondeaus, to inferior characters.[13]


By contrast, arias in opera buffa (comic opera) were often specific in character to the nature of the character being portrayed (for example the cheeky servant-girl or the irascible elderly suitor or guardian).[14]


By later in the century it was clear that these formats were becoming fossilized. Christoph Willibald Gluck thought that both opera buffa and opera seria had strayed too far from what opera should really be, and seemed unnatural. The jokes of opera buffa were threadbare and the repetition of the same characters made them seem no more than stereotypes. In opera seria the singing was devoted to superficial effects and the content was uninteresting and stale. As in opera buffa, the singers were often masters of the stage and the music, decorating the vocal lines so floridly that audiences could no longer recognise the original melody. Gluck wanted to return opera to its origins, focusing on human drama and passions and making words and music of equal importance. The effects of these Gluckist reforms were seen not only in his own operas but in the later works of Mozart; the arias now become far more expressive of the individual emotions of the characters and are both more firmly anchored in, and advance, the storyline. Richard Wagner was to praise Gluck's innovations in his 1850 essay "Opera and Drama": " The musical composer revolted against the wilfulness of the singer"; rather than "unfold[ing] the purely sensuous contents of the Aria to their highest, rankest, pitch", Gluck sought "to put shackles on Caprice's execution of that Aria, by himself endeavouring to give the tune [...] an expression answering to the underlying Word-text".[15] This attitude was to underlie Wagner's would-be deconstruction of aria in his concept of Gesamtkunstwerk.


Despite the ideals of Gluck, and the trend to organise libretti so that arias had a more organic part in the drama rather than merely interrupting its flow, in the operas of the early 19th century, (for example those of Gioachino Rossini and Gaetano Donizetti), bravura arias remained focal attractions, and they continued to play a major role in grand opera, and in Italian opera through the 19th century.


A favoured form of aria in the first half of the 19th century in Italian opera was the cabaletta, in which a songlike cantabile section is followed by a more animated section, the cabaletta proper, repeated in whole or in part. Typically such arias would be preceded by recitative, the whole sequence being termed a scena. There might also be opportunities for participation by orchestra or chorus. An example is Casta diva from the opera Norma of Vincenzo Bellini.[16]


Later in the century, the post-1850 operas of Wagner were through-composed, with fewer elements being readily identifiable as self-contained arias;[17] whilst the Italian genre of verismo opera also sought to integrate arioso elements although still allowing some 'show-pieces'.[16]


Concert arias, which are not part of any larger work, (or were sometimes written to replace or insert arias in their own operas or operas of other composers) were written by composers to provide the opportunity for vocal display for concert singers;[18] examples are Ah! perfido, Op. 65, by Beethoven, and a number of concert arias by Mozart, including Conservati fedele.


The term 'aria' was frequently used in the 17th and 18th centuries for instrumental music used for dancing or variation, and modelled on vocal music.[19] For example, J. S. Bach's so-called "Goldberg Variations" were titled at their 1741 publication "Clavier Ubung bestehend in einer ARIA mit verschiedenen Verænderungen" ("Keyboard exercise, consisting of one ARIA with diverse variations.")


The word is sometimes used in contemporary music as a title for instrumental pieces, e.g. Robin Holloway's 1980 'aria' for chamber ensemble.[20] or Harrison Birtwistle's brass band piece, "Grimethorpe Aria" (1973).[21]


This progress bar is built using a , which has no meaning. We include ARIA roles and properties to add meaning. In this example, the role="progressbar" attribute informs the browser that this element is actually a JavaScript-powered progress bar widget. The aria-valuemin and aria-valuemax attributes specify the minimum and maximum values for the progress bar, and the aria-valuenow describes the current state of it and therefore must be kept updated with JavaScript.


This progress bar is built using a , which has no meaning. We include ARIA roles and properties to add meaning. In this example, the role=\"progressbar\" attribute informs the browser that this element is actually a JavaScript-powered progress bar widget. The aria-valuemin and aria-valuemax attributes specify the minimum and maximum values for the progress bar, and the aria-valuenow describes the current state of it and therefore must be kept updated with JavaScript.


Accessibility of web content requires semantic information about widgets, structures, and behaviors, in order to allow assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to persons with disabilities. This specification provides an ontology of roles, states, and properties that define accessible user interface elements and can be used to improve the accessibility and interoperability of web content and applications. These semantics are designed to allow an author to properly convey user interface behaviors and structural information to assistive technologies in document-level markup. This version adds features new since WAI-ARIA 1.0 [wai-aria-1.0] to improve interoperability with assistive technologies to form a more consistent accessibility model for [html5] and [SVG2]. This specification complements both [html5] and [SVG2].


To comment on this document, file an issue in the W3C aria GitHub repository. If this is not feasible, send email to public-aria@w3.org (comment archive). Comments received on the WAI-ARIA 1.1 Recommendation cannot result in changes to this version of the specification, but may be addressed in errata or future versions of WAI-ARIA. The Working Group may not make formal responses to comments but future work undertaken by the Working Group may address comments received on this document. In-progress updates to the technology may be viewed in the publicly visible editors' draft.


WAI-ARIA is a technical specification that provides a framework to improve the accessibility and interoperability of web content and applications. This document is primarily for developers creating custom widgets and other web application components. Please see the WAI-ARIA Overview for links to related documents for other audiences, such as WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices [wai-aria-practices-1.1] that introduces developers to the accessibility problems that WAI-ARIA is intended to solve, the fundamental concepts, and the technical approach of WAI-ARIA.


This draft currently handles two aspects of roles: user interface functionality and structural relationships. For more information and use cases, see [wai-aria-practices-1.1] for the use of roles in making interactive content accessible.


Users of alternate input devices need keyboard accessible content. The new semantics, when combined with the recommended keyboard interactions provided in WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices [wai-aria-practices-1.1], will allow alternate input solutions to facilitate command and control via an alternate input solution. 041b061a72


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